Fortifying the Internet of Things: A Comprehensive Security Review


  • Oroos Arshi University of Petroleum and Energy Studies image/svg+xml
  • Aryan Chaudhary Bio Tech Sphere Research



IoT security, Lock-out mechanism, Internet-of-Things (IoT), Security threats, Intrustion detection system, graph neural networks


A variety of new technologies and their related capabilities have entered daily life in the long run of the IoT technology. Various industrial sectors, including healthcare, facility management, agriculture, energy, and transportation, use IoT technologies.  Interconnected networks are starting to include IoT devices like wearables, commercial appliances, connected electronics, smart grids, smart automobiles, etc. These gadgets produce enormous amounts of data, which are gathered, examined, recorded, and kept on the networks. IoT security is challenging to secure since the devices employ basic processors and operating systems that may not be compatible with advanced security measures. The information and the devices that are used by organizations as a part of their network must be protected against hackers. In this paper, we discuss about overall review of IoT systems that contains the scope of IoT in the  future era, Some of the characteristics of IoT systems, layers including the working Architecture of IoT. We will also discuss some of the vulnerabilities and surface area attacks, application areas regarding IoT. Potential weaknesses in the IoT system could cause serious issues for enterprises. The majority of Internet of Things (IoT) devices have security flaws, including incorrect physical security systems, lack of lock-out mechanisms, weak encryption schemes, improper key management systems, and improper authentication mechanisms, or the use of default credentials. As in the evolving era, security issues are becoming a major problem so some of the security threats of IoT are also mentioned here. This paper also provides the methods for addressing the vulnerabilities to IoT systems' security.


Download data is not yet available.
<br data-mce-bogus="1"> <br data-mce-bogus="1">


Journal article: Mohamad Noor, M. B., & Hassan, W. H. (2019). Current research on Internet of Things (IoT) security: A survey. Computer Networks, 148, 283-294. DOI:

Review paper: Schiller, E., Aidoo, A., Fuhrer, J., Stahl, J., Ziörjen, M., & Stiller, B. (2022). Landscape of IoT security. Computer Science Review, 44, 100467. DOI:

Conference: Z. -K. Zhang, M. C. Y. Cho, C. -W. Wang, C. -W. Hsu, C. -K. Chen and S. Shieh, "IoT Security: Ongoing Challenges and Research Opportunities," 2014 IEEE 7th International Conference on Service-Oriented Computing and Applications, Matsue, Japan, 2014, pp. 230-234, doi: 10.1109/SOCA.2014.58. DOI:

Article: Jurcut, A. D., Ranaweera, P., & Xu, L. Introduction to IoT Security. 27-64. DOI:

Conference R. Mahmoud, T. Yousuf, F. Aloul and I. Zualkernan, "Internet of things (IoT) security: Current status, challenges and prospective measures," 2015 10th International Conference for Internet Technology and Secured Transactions (ICITST), London, UK, 2015, pp. 336-341, doi: 10.1109/ICITST.2015.7412116. DOI:

Conference: Q. Gou, L. Yan, Y. Liu and Y. Li, "Construction and Strategies in IoT Security System," 2013 IEEE International Conference on Green Computing and Communications and IEEE Internet of Things and IEEE Cyber, Physical and Social Computing, Beijing, China, 2013, pp. 1129-1132, doi: 10.1109/GreenCom-iThings-CPSCom.2013.195. DOI:

Article: N. Neshenko, E. Bou-Harb, J. Crichigno, G. Kaddoum and N. Ghani, "Demystifying IoT Security: An Exhaustive Survey on IoT Vulnerabilities and a First Empirical Look on Internet-Scale IoT Exploitations," in IEEE Communications Surveys & Tutorials, vol. 21, no. 3, pp. 2702-2733, thirdquarter 2019, doi: 10.1109/COMST.2019.2910750. DOI:

Review Paper: ] Khanna, A., Kaur, S. Internet of Things (IoT), Applications and Challenges: A Comprehensive Review. Wireless Pers Commun 114, 1687–1762 (2020). DOI:

Review Paper: Tun, S.Y.Y., Madanian, S. & Mirza, F. Internet of things (IoT) applications for elderly care: a reflective review. Aging Clin Exp Res 33, 855–867 (2021). DOI:

Conference: N. Shahid and S. Aneja, "Internet of Things: Vision, application areas and research challenges," 2017 International Conference on I-SMAC (IoT in Social, Mobile, Analytics and Cloud) (I-SMAC), Palladam, India, 2017, pp. 583-587, doi: 10.1109/I-SMAC.2017.8058246. DOI:

Conference: S. Babar, A. Stango, N. Prasad, J. Sen and R. Prasad, "Proposed embedded security framework for Internet of Things (IoT)," 2011 2nd International Conference on Wireless Communication, Vehicular Technology, Information Theory and Aerospace & Electronic Systems Technology (Wireless VITAE), Chennai, India, 2011, pp. 1-5, doi: 10.1109/WIRELESSVITAE.2011.5940923. DOI:


Additional Files



How to Cite

Oroos Arshi and Aryan Chaudhary, “Fortifying the Internet of Things: A Comprehensive Security Review”, EAI Endorsed Trans IoT, vol. 9, no. 4, p. e1, Oct. 2023.