EAI Endorsed Transactions on Mobile Communications and Applications https://publications.eai.eu/index.php/mca <section class="meta-tabs"> <div class="content"> <div style="display: block;"> <div class="abstract"> <p class="blurb">EAI Endorsed Transactions on Mobile Communications and Applications is an open-access, a peer-reviewed scholarly journal focused on all aspects of mobile communications theories, technologies, systems, and applications. The journal publishes research articles, review articles, commentaries, editorials, technical articles, and short communications with a triannual frequency. Authors are not charged for article submission and processing.</p> <p class="blurb"><strong>INDEXING</strong>: CrossRef, Google Scholar, ProQuest, EBSCO, CNKI, Dimensions</p> </div> </div> </div> </section> European Alliance for Innovation (EAI) en-US EAI Endorsed Transactions on Mobile Communications and Applications 2032-9504 <p>This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution <a href="https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/" target="_blank" rel="noopener">CC BY 3.0</a> license, which permits unlimited use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium so long as the original work is properly cited.</p> Intelligent Reflecting Surface Aided Cloud Access Networks with Federated Learning https://publications.eai.eu/index.php/mca/article/view/2903 <p>Compared with traditional cellular network architecture, cloud access network has some significant advantages in spectrum utilization, energy consumption and network construction cost. However, a high-quality forward link is required between the baseband processing unit pool and remote radio head (RRH) in the cloud access network, which results in limited RRH deployment and affects user access link transmission and coverage. To solve this issue, this paper introduces the intelligent reflector technology into the cloud access network as a solution with low energy consumption, low cost and easy deployment to deal with the existing bottlenecks. Firstly, an efficient channel information acquisition strategy based on federated learning is designed for the smart reflector to enhance the user access link, so as to achieve a compromise between the channel estimation accuracy and cost. On this basis, a robust beamforming design and optimization method of the compression mechanism of the forward link are proposed for the smart reflector to enhance the user access link and the wireless forward link, so as to improve the system transmission performance. Finally, we explore the joint resource allocation method of intelligent reflector assisted cloud access network, and improve the system energy efficiency through the collaborative configuration of intelligent reflector and cloud access network communication resources. The research of this paper will provide an important theoretical basis for the application of intelligent reflectors in cloud access networks, especially for the federated learning.</p> Dahua Fan Jianghong Ou Bowen Lu Shiwei Lai Yajuan Tang Tao Cui Chengyuan Fan Copyright (c) 2023 EAI Endorsed Transactions on Mobile Communications and Applications https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/ 2023-01-17 2023-01-17 7 4 e1 e1 10.4108/eetmca.v7i4.2903 Intelligent Reflecting Surface Aided Secure Communication with Federated Learning https://publications.eai.eu/index.php/mca/article/view/2900 <p>Applying federated learning into the covert communication can not only ensure the communication reliability, but also reduce the probability of enemy detection. The use of airspace resources is an effective way to achieve covert communication. However, most of the existing works on the airspace covert communication represented by MIMO need to adapt to the channel state and cannot improve the channel, resulting in the performance bottleneck of covert communication. The intelligent reflective surface (IRS) provides a new perspective for the covert communication by flexibly adjusting the reflection phase shift of the incident signal and intelligently configuring the wireless channel. However, the potential of IRS in the covert communication is far from being fully exploited. To solve this issue, this paper firstly performs a comprehensive literature review on the secure communication with the aid of federated learning, and then gives some challenges on the secure communication in poor channel state. In further, this paper provides some solutions to the challenges on the secure communication, where some results are provided to show the advantages. The research results have important theoretical and practical significance for forming a new research paradigm of airspace intelligent and controllable covert communication and promoting the application and popularization of covert communication in various fields of security.</p> Bowen Lu Shiwei Lai Yajuan Tang Tao Cui Chengyuan Fan Jianghong Ou Dahua Fan Copyright (c) 2023 EAI Endorsed Transactions on Mobile Communications and Applications https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/ 2023-03-23 2023-03-23 7 4 e2 e2 10.4108/eetmca.v7i4.2900 Li-Fi Technology Based Long Range Free-Space Optics Data Transmit System Evaluation https://publications.eai.eu/index.php/mca/article/view/2940 <p>INTRODUCTION: The most flexible and reliable technological system is Wi-Fi, which is made possible by a wireless connection that transmits data using radio frequencies. Wi-Fi networks, however, encounter numerous issues related to power supply, availability, efficiency, and security as a result of the various access points. While relational waves describe the medical device, Wi-Fi radios produce radio waves that are very dangerous for patients. This document offers line-of-sight communication between the transmitter and receiver using LED technology. Li-Fi technology is a method that transmits audio data using LED light, which is faster and more efficient than Wi-Fi. Since it is practically ubiquitous, light can be used for communication as well. A cutting-edge technology called optical communication includes a subset called light fidelity. By sending out visible light, the Li-Fi device enables wireless intranet communication. This paper is an in-depth study and analysis of Light Fidelity (Li-Fi), a novel technology that transmits data at high speeds over a wide spectrum by using light as a medium of transmission. The research fields that are pertinent to Li-Fi networks are thoroughly analyzed and categorized in this paper.</p><p>OBJECTIVES: High speed data transmission, receive, share, broadcast through light in free space optical communication system by Li-Fi technology.</p><p>METHODS: We followed some methods and developed a unique method to develop this project. which is VLC, OOK, a Lambertian discharge mechanism, LOS, NLOS, or a CMOS optical receiver.</p><p>RESULTS: Successfully, we transmitted and received audio, video, and other data, which is very high-rated and near the 2 GB/s range.</p><p>CONCLUSION: Visible light communication may be a fast-evolving technique in the field of wireless technology. Li-Fi is a wireless data transfer system that is both fast and inexpensive. It can also be used in potentially hazardous situations, such as in nuclear power plants, without causing electromagnetic interference. We are considering adding more features to our project in the future to get better outcomes.</p> Omar Faruq Kazi Rubaiyat Shahriar Rahman Nusrat Jahan Sakib Rokoni Mosa Rabeya Copyright (c) 2023 EAI Endorsed Transactions on Mobile Communications and Applications https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/ 2023-05-29 2023-05-29 7 4 e3 e3 10.4108/eetmca.v7i4.2940 ns-3 Simulation Based Exploration of LTE Handover Optimization https://publications.eai.eu/index.php/mca/article/view/2967 <p>Network simulator (ns-3) is a reputed simulation platform for performance evaluation of cellular networks. In this work, we explore the use of ns-3 for tracking of successful handovers (HO) and handover failures and consequent impact on 4G LTE network throughput with the aim of discovering new analytical relations about HOs and new methods to optimize the resulting throughput. Decreased cell sizes in newer generation networks lead to increasing number of handovers and handover failures that have significant impact. We begin by reviewing analytical models in the literature that aim to predict number of HO and HO failures in terms of HO control and network parameters. We initially conduct a suite of exhaustive validation studies of such analytical models, based on the simulation execution manager (SEM) for ns-3 for parallelization. Via this, we discover new causal relations relating HO failures and choice of HO control parameters on network throughput. Based on these initial results, we next evaluate the application of Gaussian process regression for prediction of instantaneous network throughput and bandit algorithms as an effective mechanism to optimize throughput over time. The new relations discovered help better understand the impact of input handover control parameters on the number of handovers and handover failures allowing us to fine tune them. The new optimization and prediction methods discovered give good gains over baseline algorithms and help accurately predict throughput respectively.</p> Sachin Nayak Copyright (c) 2023 EAI Endorsed Transactions on Mobile Communications and Applications https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/ 2023-05-29 2023-05-29 7 4 e4 e4 10.4108/eetmca.v7i4.2967 Review of 5G C-RAN Resource Allocation https://publications.eai.eu/index.php/mca/article/view/3263 <p>The Fifth Generation (5G) Network will bring different types of services, namely: EMBB, mMTC and URLLC and as more devices connect to the network, each user device request for data capacity will continue to grow. The increase in the number of devices and capacity request for each device will require an increase in network capacity, which will also need an increase in the number of Base Stations in the network. More Base Stations will increase the the Mobile Network Operator’s capital investment and operation costs. However, this increase in CAPEX and OPEX will not provide a corresponding increase in ARPU as users tend to be less willing to pay more as their capacity request increases. Mobile vendors and Mobile Network Operators will face the challenge of providing higher capacity for the same or less ARPU for their customers to maintain their customer base and maintain the business profitability. C-RAN was identified as a new and promising paradigm to help Mobile Network Operators reduce their CAPEX and OPEX while delivering higher capacity to their customers and maintaining business profitability. How C-RAN resources are allocated and managed within the 5G network will determine how efficient and profitable this optimisation process will be. In this article, we provide a high-level review of the crucial enabling 5G Technologies and an exhaustive review of C-RAN resource allocation algorithms for 5G networks with emphasis on resource allocation metrics/parameters. The main resource allocation metrics considered in this work include BBU computational/processing resource, capacity, Power/ energy consumption, wavelength, UE-RRH mapping and RRH-BBU mapping. Furthermore, Energy Harvesting in 5G C-RAN is discussed, including its architecture, categorised taxonomy and requirements. Lastly, future research directions and open research issues for efficient C-RAN resource allocation are highlighted.</p> Louis Obi Chenke Charles Nche Éric Michel Deussom Djomadji Emmanuel Tanyi Bety Copyright (c) 2023 EAI Endorsed Transactions on Mobile Communications and Applications https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/ 2023-01-15 2023-01-15 7 4 e5 e5 10.4108/eetmca.v7i4.3263