Platformization and the Metaverse: Opportunities and Challenges for Urban Sustainability and Economic Development

Authors

  • Aram Mohammed-Amin Qadir University of Halabja image/svg+xml
  • Ava Omar Fatah University Of Sulaimani

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.4108/ew.3842

Keywords:

Platformization, metaverse, smart cities, digital twins, Economic development, Digital platforms, Data-driven urbanism, Urban sustainability, digital economy, climate change, virtual reality

Abstract

In simpler terms, our day-to-day life, from various urban sectors to all deep corners of city life, is becoming hugely influenced by digital platforms' data systems, economic tactics, and ways of management. This is a trend that we call "platformization." It's taken us to a point where we now live in what's often described as a "platform society" because these platforms now largely control urban civilizations. What's fascinating is that this platformization trend has created something pretty striking: the Metaverse. The Metaverse is an impressive global platform project launched by Meta, the company we used to know as Facebook. This project brings to life a potential "virtual world" that mirrors our reality. The idea is that the Metaverse can serve as a virtual version of the future cities – not too different from what we think of as smart cities. Thanks to cutting-edge technologies like Artificial Intelligence, Big Data, Internet of Things (IoT), and Digital Twins, we now have enough resources and understanding of human behavior to make a project like the Metaverse possible. The promise is that the Metaverse can revolutionize how we design cities and deliver public services, making cities more efficient, accountable, and with a higher quality performance. But of course, the arrival of the Metaverse isn't without its worries. There are many questions over the ethical, human, social, and cultural implications the Metaverse may have. Particularly, there are concerns about the kind of impact it may have on the quality of human social relationships and how it may reshape urban life. To unpack all of these, this research work aims to thoroughly examine available literature on this topic. The paper further looks into the new products and services coming into being because of the Metaverse, examining how they might help smart cities, especially those aiming for better environment, economy, and social sustainability. The insights gathered here could help city leaders understand the Metaverse's potential for technology-driven urban practices and future city plans. It also takes a critical stance, challenging whether the Metaverse might significantly change how reality is constructed in our increasingly platform-driven urban world. This discussion, hopefully, can fuel future research and critical conversation on this hot topic.

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

References

[ 1] Adinarayan, T. (2021, November 12). Metaverse Only Gets Real When Apple Joins, Morgan Stanley Says. Bloomberg.com. https://www.bloomberg.com/news/articles/2021-11-12/metaverse-only-gets-real-when-apple-joins-morgan-stanley-says

[ 2] Agudelo-Vera, C. M., Mels, A. R., Keesman, K. J., & Rijnaarts, H. H. M. (2011). Resource management as a key factor for sustainable urban planning. Journal of Environmental Management, 92(10), 2295–2303. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvman.2011.05.016 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvman.2011.05.016

[ 3] Alan Thomas Roper, Cunningham, S. W., Porter, A. L., Mason, T. W., Rossini, F. A., & Banks, J. (2011). Forecasting and Management of Technology Porter/Forecasting and Management Technology 2E. Hoboken, Nj, Usa John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

[ 4] Allam, & Jones. (2019a). Climate Change and Economic Resilience through Urban and Cultural Heritage: The Case of Emerging Small Island Developing States Economies. Economies, 7(2), 62. https://doi.org/10.3390/economies7020062 DOI: https://doi.org/10.3390/economies7020062

[ 5] Allam, Z. (2020). Cities and the Digital Revolution. Palgrave Macmillan. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-29800-5 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-29800-5

[ 6] Allam, Z., Bibri, S. E., Jones, D. S., Chabaud, D., & Moreno, C. (2022). Unpacking the “15-Minute City” via 6G, IoT, and Digital Twins: Towards a New Narrative for Increasing Urban Efficiency, Resilience, and Sustainability. Sensors, 22(4), 1369. https://doi.org/10.3390/s22041369 DOI: https://doi.org/10.3390/s22041369

[ 7] Allam, Z., & Jones, D. S. (2019b). Attracting investment by introducing the city as a special economic zone: a perspective from Mauritius. Urban Research & Practice, 12(2), 201–207. https://doi.org/10.1080/17535069.2019.1607017 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/17535069.2019.1607017

[ 8] Allam, Z., & Jones, D. S. (2020). Pandemic stricken cities on lockdown. Where are our planning and design professionals [now, then and into the future]? Land Use Policy, 97, 104805. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.landusepol.2020.104805 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.landusepol.2020.104805

[ 9] Allam, Z., & Jones, D. S. (2021). Future (post-COVID) digital, smart and sustainable cities in the wake of 6G: Digital twins, immersive realities and new urban economies. Land Use Policy, 101, 105201. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.landusepol.2020.105201 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.landusepol.2020.105201

[ 10] Allam, Z., Jones, D. S., & Biyik, C. (2021). Introducing a global planetary ecosystem accounting in the wake of the Amazon Forest fires. Humanities and Social Sciences Communications, 8(1). https://doi.org/10.1057/s41599-021-00937-0 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1057/s41599-021-00937-0

[ 11] Allam, Z., Jones, D., & Thondoo, M. (2020). Cities and Climate Change. In Palgrave Studies in Climate Resilient Societies. Springer International Publishing. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-40727-8 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-40727-8

[ 12] Allam, Z., & Newman, P. (2018). Economically Incentivising Smart Urban Regeneration. Case Study of Port Louis, Mauritius. Smart Cities, 1(1), 53–74. https://doi.org/10.3390/smartcities1010004 DOI: https://doi.org/10.3390/smartcities1010004

[ 13] alphaGrid. (2022). NFTs – the metaverse economy. Www.ft.com. https://www.ft.com/partnercontent/crypto-com/nfts-the-metaverse-economy.html

[ 14] Ameer, S.; Shah, M.A. Exploiting Big Data Analytics for Smart Urban Planning. In Proceedings of the 2018 IEEE 88th Vehicular Technology Conference (VTC-Fall), Chicago, IL, USA, 27–30 August 2018; pp. 1–5. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1109/VTCFall.2018.8691036

[ 15] Ascott, E. (2021, September 9). How the Metaverse Will Change the Future of Work. AllWork.Space. https://allwork.space/2021/09/how-the-metaverse-will-change-the-future-of-work/

[ 16] Abubakar Musa, & Veronica Nkeiru Vincen. (2022). School Plant Management in Public Universities in Nigeria: Challenges and the Way Forward. Journal of Environmental Impact and Management Policy(JEIMP) ISSN:2799-113X, 2(03), 37–42. https://doi.org/10.55529/jeimp23.37.42 DOI: https://doi.org/10.55529/jeimp23.37.42

[ 17] Assis. Prof. Dr. Rana Abdalssatar Jassim, Assis. Prof. Dr. AlmutasemBellah W. Mahdi, & Dr. Mohammed W. Mahdi. (2022). The Effect of Using the Strategy Mental Stimulants to Learn Some Skills on the Parallel Device in Artistic Gymnastics. Journal Healthcare Treatment Development(JHTD) ISSN : 2799-1148, 2(01), 1–6. https://doi.org/10.55529/jhtd21.1.6 DOI: https://doi.org/10.55529/jhtd21.1.6

[ 18] Assis. Prof. Dr. Rana Abdalssatar Jassim, Assis. Prof. Dr. AlmutasemBellah W. Mahdi, & Dr. Mohammed W. Mahdi. (2022). Effectiveness of Using Mental Speed Exercises in Learning the Skill of Front Hands Jump on the Platform in the Artistic Gymnastics. Journal Healthcare Treatment Development(JHTD) ISSN : 2799-1148, 2(02), 9–13. https://doi.org/10.55529/jhtd22.9.13 DOI: https://doi.org/10.55529/jhtd22.9.13

[ 19] Almhanna Mohanad Yahya, Mahdi Jawad Saeed, & Harba Alkhansaa Sabah. (2022). Spontaneous Activity in Abductor Digiti Minimi )Adm( As an Early Indicator of the Irritation of the Ulnar Nerve at the Elbow Joint. Journal Healthcare Treatment Development(JHTD) ISSN : 2799-1148, 2(03), 1–5. https://doi.org/10.55529/jhtd23.1.5 DOI: https://doi.org/10.55529/jhtd23.1.5

[ 20] Aditya Prasad T. (2022). Jan Aushadi Scheme: A crucial step towards achieving health equity. Journal Healthcare Treatment Development(JHTD) ISSN : 2799-1148, 2(03), 6–13. https://doi.org/10.55529/jhtd23.6.13 DOI: https://doi.org/10.55529/jhtd23.6.13

[ 21] Abdal Ahmed, Chems Eddine Boukhedimi, Sumera Qureshi, & Shama Nargis. (2022). Covid-19 and Renewable Energy in BRICS Countries: An Opportunity or a Threat?. Journal of Environmental Impact and Management Policy(JEIMP) ISSN:2799-113X, 2(04), 10–24. https://doi.org/10.55529/jeimp24.10.24 DOI: https://doi.org/10.55529/jeimp24.10.24

[ 22] Amenu, O. ., & Assefa, A. . (2022). Developing Expert System for Diagnosis and Treatment of Monkey Pox Outbreak. Journal Healthcare Treatment Development(JHTD) ISSN : 2799-1148, 2(04), 28–35. https://doi.org/10.55529/jhtd.24.28.35 DOI: https://doi.org/10.55529/jhtd.24.28.35

[ 23] Anumandla Mounika Reddy. (2021). A Review on Iot Enabling Technologies and Back-End Data-Sharing Model. Journal of Electronics,Computer Networking and Applied Mathematics(JECNAM) ISSN : 2799-1156, 1(01), 41–47. https://doi.org/10.55529/jecnam11.41.47 DOI: https://doi.org/10.55529/jecnam11.41.47

[ 24] Ball, M. (2020, January 13). The Metaverse: What It Is, Where to Find it, Who Will Build It, and Fortnite. Matthew Ball. https://www.matthewball.vc/all/themetaverse

[ 25] Bassett, C., Steinmueller, E., & Voss, G. (2013). Better Made Up: The Mutual Influence of Science fiction and Innovation. https://media.nesta.org.uk/documents/better_made_up_the_mutual_influence_of_science_fiction_and_innovation.pdf

[ 26] Baym, N. K. (2015). Personal connections in the digital age. Polity.

[ 27] Bettencourt, L. M. A. (2014). The Uses of Big Data in Cities. Big Data, 2(1), 12–22. https://doi.org/10.1089/big.2013.0042 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1089/big.2013.0042

[ 28] Bibri, S.E. Approaches to Futures Studies: A Scholarly and Planning Approach to Strategic Smart Sustainable City Development. In Smart Sustainable Cities of the Future: The Untapped Potential of Big Data Analytics and Context–Aware Computing for Advancing Sustainability; Bibri, S.E., Ed.; Springer International Publishing: Cham, Switzerland, 2018; pp. 601–660. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-73981-6_11

[ 29] Bibri, S. (2014). The Potential Catalytic Role of Green Entrepreneurship -Technological Eco-Innovations and Ecopreneurs’ Acts -in the Structural Transformation to a Low-Carbon or Green Economy: A Foucauldian Discursive Approach. https://core.ac.uk/download/pdf/289950379.pdf

[ 30] Bibri, S. E. (2021a). Data-Driven Smart Eco-Cities of the Future: An Empirically Informed Integrated Model for Strategic Sustainable Urban Development. World Futures, 1–44. https://doi.org/10.1080/02604027.2021.1969877 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/02604027.2021.1969877

[ 31] Bibri, S. E. (2021b). The underlying components of data-driven smart sustainable cities of the future: a case study approach to an applied theoretical framework. European Journal of Futures Research, 9(1). https://doi.org/10.1186/s40309-021-00182-3 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1186/s40309-021-00182-3

[ 32] Bibri, S. E. (2021c). Data-driven smart eco-cities and sustainable integrated districts: A best-evidence synthesis approach to an extensive literature review. European Journal of Futures Research, 9(1). https://doi.org/10.1186/s40309-021-00181-4 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1186/s40309-021-00181-4

[ 33] Bibri, S. E. (2021d). Eco-districts and data-driven smart eco-cities: Emerging approaches to strategic planning by design and spatial scaling and evaluation by technology. Land Use Policy, 113, 105830. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.landusepol.2021.105830 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.landusepol.2021.105830

[ 34] Bibri, S. E. (2022). The Social Shaping of the Metaverse as an Alternative to the Imaginaries of Data-Driven Smart Cities: A Study in Science, Technology, and Society. Smart Cities, 5(3), 832–874. https://doi.org/10.3390/smartcities5030043 DOI: https://doi.org/10.3390/smartcities5030043

[ 35] Bibri, S. E., & Allam, Z. (2022a). The Metaverse as a Virtual Form of Data-Driven Smart Urbanism: On Post-Pandemic Governance through the Prism of the Logic of Surveillance Capitalism. Smart Cities, 5(2), 715–727. https://doi.org/10.3390/smartcities5020037 DOI: https://doi.org/10.3390/smartcities5020037

[ 36] Bibri, S. E., & Allam, Z. (2022b). The Metaverse as a virtual form of data-driven smart cities: the ethics of the hyper-connectivity, datafication, algorithmization, and platformization of urban society. Computational Urban Science, 2(1). https://doi.org/10.1007/s43762-022-00050-1 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s43762-022-00050-1

[ 37] Bibri, S. E., & Krogstie, J. (2020). The emerging data–driven Smart City and its innovative applied solutions for sustainability: the cases of London and Barcelona . Energy Informatics, 3(1). https://doi.org/10.1186/s42162-020-00108-6 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1186/s42162-020-00108-6

[ 38] Bibri, S.E.; Allam, Z.; Krogstie, J. The Metaverse as a Virtual Form of Data-Driven Smart Urbanism: Platformization and Its Underlying Processes, Institutional Dimensions, and Disruptive Impacts. Comput. Urban Sci. 2022, in press. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s43762-022-00051-0

[ 39] Bina, O., Inch, A., & Pereira, L. (2020). Beyond techno-utopia and its discontents: On the role of utopianism and speculative fiction in shaping alternatives to the smart city imaginary. Futures, 115, 102475. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.futures.2019.102475 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.futures.2019.102475

[ 40] Bonifacic, I. (2021, November). Nike is building its metaverse inside of “Roblox.” Engadget. https://www.engadget.com/nike-roblox-nikeland-metaverse-192234036.html

[ 41] BUSINESS WIRE. (2022, November 25). Augmented Reality (AR) in Retail and Apparel - Thematic Research: Industry to Reach $152 Billion by 2030 - ResearchAndMarkets.com. Www.businesswire.com. https://www.businesswire.com/news/home/20221125005298/en/Augmented-Reality-AR-in-Retail-and-Apparel---Thematic-Research-Industry-to-Reach-152-Billion-by-2030---ResearchAndMarkets.com

[ 42] Banerjee, S. . (2022). Machine Learning (ML) in Diet Planning for Type-1 Diabetes - An Overview. Journal Healthcare Treatment Development(JHTD) ISSN : 2799-1148, 2(05), 1–5. https://doi.org/10.55529/jhtd25.1.5 DOI: https://doi.org/10.55529/jhtd25.1.5

[ 43] Caprotti, F., Chang, I.-C. C., & Joss, S. (2022). Beyond the smart city: a typology of platform urbanism. Urban Transformations, 4(1). https://doi.org/10.1186/s42854-022-00033-9 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1186/s42854-022-00033-9

[ 44] Cassauwers, T. (2019, October 7). Is 5G bad for your health? It’s complicated, say researchers | Research and Innovation. Ec.europa.eu. https://ec.europa.eu/research-and-innovation/en/horizon-magazine/5g-bad-your-health-its-complicated-say-researchers

[ 45] Centre, U. W. H. (2016, October). n°81 - World Heritage and Urban Heritage. UNESCO World Heritage Centre. https://whc.unesco.org/en/review/81/

[ 46] Centre, U. W. H. (2023). UNESCO World Heritage Centre - World Heritage List. UNESCO World Heritage Centre. https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/&order=country#alphaR

[ 47] Chapman, M. (2021, November). Is the Metaverse a friend or foe to travel? Www.phocuswire.com. https://www.phocuswire.com/Metaverse-friend-foe-travel

[ 48] Clark, J., & Engineering, D. of. (2021, February). Connect with Friends on Oculus: Messenger Comes to the Quest Platform. Messenger News. https://messengernews.fb.com/2021/02/02/connect-with-friends-on-oculus-messenger-comes-to-the-quest-platform/

[ 49] CNET. (2021, October 28). Everything Facebook revealed about the Metaverse in 11 minutes. Www.youtube.com. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=gElfIo6uw4g

[ 50] communityviz. (2023). CommunityViz – Texas A&M AgriLife Extension Service. CommunityViz – Texas A&M AgriLife Extension Service. https://communityviz.com/

[ 51] Daniels, T. (2019). McHarg’s theory and practice of regional ecological planning: retrospect and prospect. Socio-Ecological Practice Research, 1(3-4), 197–208. https://doi.org/10.1007/s42532-019-00024-4 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s42532-019-00024-4

[ 52] de Sá Pereira, M. P. (2019). Imagining Urban Futures: Cities in Science-Fiction and What We Might Learn from Them by Carl Abbott. Science Fiction Studies, 46(2), 392–394. https://doi.org/10.1353/sfs.2019.0038 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1353/sfs.2019.0038

[ 53] Dijck, J. van, Poell, T., Waal, M. de, Dijck, J. van, Poell, T., & Waal, M. de. (2018). The Platform Society: Public Values in a Connective World. In Oxford University Press. Oxford University Press. https://global.oup.com/academic/product/the-platform-society-9780190889777?cc=iq&lang=en&

[ 54] Dreborg, K. H. (1996). Essence of backcasting. Futures, 28(9), 813–828. https://doi.org/10.1016/s0016-3287(96)00044-4 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/S0016-3287(96)00044-4

[ 55] Duan, H., Li, J., Fan, S., Lin, Z., Wu, X., & Cai, W. (2021). Virtual Event. Metaverse for Social Good: A University Campus Prototype, MM ’21. https://doi.org/10.1145/3474085.3479238 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1145/3474085.3479238

[ 56] Dunn, N., Cureton, D. P., & Pollastri, S. (2014). A visual history of the future. https://assets.publishing.service.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/360814/14-814-future-cities-visual-history.pdf

[ 57] D.Beula Shiny, J.Vijila Jasmin, S. Sujithra, M.Jenifer Tamizharasi, & T. Kumaran. (2021). Nutraceutical Application, Bioactive Compounds and Health Benefits of Seaweeds. Journal Healthcare Treatment Development(JHTD) ISSN : 2799-1148, 1(01), 6–13. https://doi.org/10.55529/jhtd11.6.13 DOI: https://doi.org/10.55529/jhtd.11.6.13

[ 58] Daini, T. G. ., Solesi, O. A. ., Adetoyi, H. N. ., Solaja, O. O. ., & Abiodun, A. S. . (2022). The Incidence of Plasmodium Falciparum and Salmonella Typhii as Co-Infection among Residents of Idiroko, Ipokia Local Government Area of Ogun State, Nigeria. Journal Healthcare Treatment Development(JHTD) ISSN : 2799-1148, 2(06), 1–5. https://doi.org/10.55529/jhtd.26.1.5 DOI: https://doi.org/10.55529/jhtd.26.1.5

[ 59] Einstein, A. (1934). On the Method of Theoretical Physics. Philosophy of Science, 1(2), 163–169. https://doi.org/10.1086/286316 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1086/286316

[ 60] Environment, U. N. (2017, May 9). Resilience and Resource Efficiency in Cities. UNEP - UN Environment Programme. https://www.unep.org/resources/report/resilience-and-resource-efficiency-cities

[ 61] ESRI. (2022). What is GIS? | Geographic Information System Mapping Technology. Esri.com. https://www.esri.com/en-us/what-is-gis/overview DOI: https://doi.org/10.22224/gistbok/2022.1.1

[ 62] evolution wellness. (2021). Covid-19 accelerates the move to hybrid fitness | Evolution Wellness. Https://Www.evolutionwellness.com/Covid-19-Accelerates-The-Move-To-Hybrid-Fitness/. https://www.evolutionwellness.com/covid-19-accelerates-the-move-to-hybrid-fitness/

[ 63] Felnhofer, A., Kothgassner, O. D., Schmidt, M., Heinzle, A.-K., Beutl, L., Hlavacs, H., & Kryspin-Exner, I. (2015). Is virtual reality emotionally arousing? Investigating five emotion inducing virtual park scenarios. International Journal of Human-Computer Studies, 82, 48–56. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijhcs.2015.05.004 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijhcs.2015.05.004

[ 64] Florian Pappenberger, Cloke, H., Persson, A., & Demeritt, D. (2011). HESS Opinions “On forecast (in)consistency in a hydro-meteorological chain: curse or blessing?” Hydrology and Earth System Sciences, 15(7), 2391–2400. https://doi.org/10.5194/hess-15-2391-2011 DOI: https://doi.org/10.5194/hess-15-2391-2011

[ 65] Frances Aliah Grace M. Hinlog, Honey Jean P. Marbas, Ivy Riza D. Espejon, Mesela Loril Domagtoy, & Medielyn M. Odtojan. (2022). Contingent Valuation Study for Selected Beach Areas in San Francisco, Surigao Del Norte for its Environmental Conservation. Journal of Environmental Impact and Management Policy(JEIMP) ISSN:2799-113X, 2(04), 1–9. https://doi.org/10.55529/jeimp24.1.9 DOI: https://doi.org/10.55529/jeimp.24.1.9

[ 66] Gaubert, J. (2021, November 10). Seoul will be the first city to enter the metaverse. Euronews. https://www.euronews.com/next/2021/11/10/seoul-to-become-the-first-city-to-enter-the-metaverse-what-will-it-look-like

[ 67] gca-events. (2023). Global Climate Action at COP 26. Unfccc.int. https://unfccc.int/climate-action/gca-events/global-climate-action-at-cop-26

[ 68] Glickman, J. (2022, April 18). How Cities Are Engaging in the Metaverse. National League of Cities. https://www.nlc.org/article/2022/04/18/how-cities-are-engaging-in-the-metaverse/

[ 69] Global Warming of 1.5°C An IPCC Special Report on the impacts of global warming of 1.5°C above pre-industrial levels and related global greenhouse gas emission pathways, in the context of strengthening the global response to the threat of climate change, sustainable development, and efforts to eradicate poverty WG I WG II WG III Summary for Policymakers Technical Summary Frequently Asked Questions Glossary Global Warming of 1.5°C An IPCC Special Report on the impacts of global warming of 1.5°C above pre-industrial levels and related global greenhouse gas emission pathways, in the context of strengthening the global response to the threat of climate change, sustainable development, and efforts to eradicate poverty Summary for Policymakers Technical Summary. (2019). https://www.ipcc.ch/site/assets/uploads/sites/2/2022/06/SR15_Summary_Volume_HR.pdf DOI: https://doi.org/10.1017/9781009157940.001

[ 70] GlobalData Thematic Research. (2021, November 18). Calculating the future environmental impacts of the metaverse. Verdict. https://www.verdict.co.uk/metaverse-environmental-impact/

[ 71] google, trends. (2008). Google Trends. Google Trends. https://trends.google.com/trends/explore?date=all_2008&gprop=news&q=metaverse

[ 72] Gordon, E., & Manosevitch, E. (2010). Augmented deliberation: Merging physical and virtual interaction to engage communities in urban planning. New Media & Society, 13(1), 75–95. https://doi.org/10.1177/1461444810365315 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1177/1461444810365315

[ 73] Gurov, O. (2022). Metaverses for Нuman or Human for Metaverses. Artificial Societies, 17(1), 0. https://doi.org/10.18254/s207751800019011-1 DOI: https://doi.org/10.18254/S207751800019011-1

[ 74] Ghosh, S. ., Ahammed, M. T. ., Oion, M. S. R. ., & Debnath, S. . (2022). An Overview of Clinical Trials in Chinese Medicine. Journal Healthcare Treatment Development(JHTD) ISSN : 2799-1148, 2(03), 14–18. https://doi.org/10.55529/jhtd23.14.18 DOI: https://doi.org/10.55529/jhtd23.14.18

[ 75] H, T. (2020). Urban Form and Human Behavior in Context of Livable Cities and their Public Realms . Scholarly Journal of Psychology and Behavioral Sciences, 3(4). https://doi.org/10.32474/sjpbs.2020.03.000167 DOI: https://doi.org/10.32474/SJPBS.2020.03.000167

[ 76] Hackl, C. (2020, August). Now Is The Time To Talk About Ethics And Privacy In The Metaverse. Forbes. https://www.forbes.com/sites/cathyhackl/2020/08/02/now-is-the-time-to-talk-about-ethics--privacy-in-the-metaverse/?sh=7c70d337ae6c

[ 77] Hackl, C. (2021, March). Making Money In The Metaverse. Forbes. https://www.forbes.com/sites/cathyhackl/2021/03/15/making-money-in-the-metaverse/?sh=49eb3d7f3b43

[ 78] Helen M. Bhola-Paul. (2015). Tourism Challenges and the Opportunities for Sustainability: A Case Study of Grenada, Barbados, and Tobago. J. Of Tourism and Hospitality Management, 3(5). https://doi.org/10.17265/2328-2169/2015.10.004 DOI: https://doi.org/10.17265/2328-2169/2015.10.004

[ 79] Herv�, J. (2017, June 12). What’s trending? On the cultural challenges facing cities. City Monitor. https://citymonitor.ai/government/what-s-trending-cultural-challenges-facing-cities-3103

[ 80] Hodder, A. (2020). New Technology, Work and Employment in the era of COVID-19: reflecting on legacies of research. New Technology, Work and Employment, 35(3). https://doi.org/10.1111/ntwe.12173 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/ntwe.12173

[ 81] Information Resources Management Association. (2017). Advertising and Branding (pp. 1258–1279). Business Science Reference.

[ 82] Isaac, M. (2021, November 5). To Build the Metaverse, Meta First Wants to Build Stores. The New York Times. https://www.nytimes.com/2021/11/05/technology/facebook-stores-meta-metaverse.html

[ 83] Ime, I. M. ., Shuaibu, M. S. ., Dixit, S. ., Obong, L. B. ., & Bala, B. B. . (2022). The Effects of Overcrowding on Students Living in University of Calabar Female Hostel, Cross River State, Nigeria. Journal Healthcare Treatment Development(JHTD) ISSN : 2799-1148, 2(04), 8–27. https://doi.org/10.55529/jhtd24.8.27 DOI: https://doi.org/10.55529/jhtd24.8.27

[ 84] Jacobs, J. (1961). The Death and Life of Great American Cities. Random House.

[ 85] Johnson, P. (2012, November). Peggy Johnson: The Metaverse will be Unlocked by Augmented Reality. Www.magicleap.com. https://www.magicleap.com/news/peggy-johnson-leading-magic-leap-through-reinvention

[ 86] Kietzmann, C. (2019). Aristotle on the Definition of What It Is to Be Human. Aristotle’s Anthropology, 25. https://www.academia.edu/36862319/_Aristotle_on_the_Definition_of_What_It_Is_to_Be_Human_in_Geert_Keil_Nora_Kreft_eds_Aristotles_Anthropology_Cambridge_CUP_2019_25_43 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1017/9781108131643.002

[ 87] Kitchin, R. (2020). Civil liberties or public health, or civil liberties and public health? Using surveillance technologies to tackle the spread of COVID-19. Space and Polity, 24(3), 1–20. https://doi.org/10.1080/13562576.2020.1770587 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/13562576.2020.1770587

[ 88] Kraus, S., Kanbach, D. K., Krysta, P. M., Steinhoff, M. M., & Tomini, N. (2022). Facebook and the creation of the metaverse: radical business model innovation or incremental transformation? International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behavior & Research, 28(9), 52–77. https://doi.org/10.1108/ijebr-12-2021-0984 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1108/IJEBR-12-2021-0984

[ 89] Kye, B., Han, N., Kim, E., Park, Y., & Jo, S. (2021). Educational applications of metaverse: possibilities and limitations. Journal of Educational Evaluation for Health Professions, 18, 32. https://doi.org/10.3352/jeehp.2021.18.32 DOI: https://doi.org/10.3352/jeehp.2021.18.32

[ 90] Khan, H. N. ., & Pathak, K. . (2022). Health Status of Women in Border Areas of Jammu and Kashmir with Special Reference to Maternal and Reproductive Health: An Analysis. Journal Healthcare Treatment Development(JHTD) ISSN : 2799-1148, 2(05), 6–16. https://doi.org/10.55529/jhtd25.6.16 DOI: https://doi.org/10.55529/jhtd25.6.16

[ 91] Lawler, D.L. Certain Assistances: The Utilities of Speculative Fictions in Shaping the Future. Mosaic J. Interdiscip. Study Lit. 1980, 13, 1–13.

[ 92] Lee, L.-H.; Braud, T.; Zhou, P.; Wang, L.; Xu, D.; Lin, Z.; Kumar, A.; Bermejo, C.; Hui, P. All One Needs to Know about Metaverse: A Complete Survey on Technological Singularity, Virtual Ecosystem, and Research Agenda. arXiv 2021, arXiv:2110.05352.

[ 93] Li, V. Q. T., Ma, L., & Wu, X. (2022). COVID-19, policy change, and post-pandemic data governance: a case analysis of contact tracing applications in East Asia. Policy and Society, 41(1), 129–142. https://doi.org/10.1093/polsoc/puab019 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1093/polsoc/puab019

[ 94] Liang, D., De Jong, M., Schraven, D., & Wang, L. (2021). Mapping key features and dimensions of the inclusive city: A systematic bibliometric analysis and literature study. International Journal of Sustainable Development & World Ecology, 29(1), 1–20. https://doi.org/10.1080/13504509.2021.1911873 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/13504509.2021.1911873

[ 95] Luger, M. I. (1996). Quality‐of‐life differences and urban and regional outcomes: A review. Housing Policy Debate, 7(4), 749–771. https://doi.org/10.1080/10511482.1996.9521242 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/10511482.1996.9521242

[ 96] Labordo, N. A. S. . (2021). Competencies and Values of Barangay Nutrition Scholars in Eastern Visayas: Basis for Program Development. Journal Healthcare Treatment Development(JHTD) ISSN : 2799-1148, 1(02), 1–11. https://doi.org/10.55529/jhtd.12.1.11 DOI: https://doi.org/10.55529/jhtd.12.1.11

[ 97] Marriott, K., Schreiber, F., Dwyer, T., Klein, K., Nathalie Henry Riche, Itoh, T., Wolfgang Stuerzlinger, & Thomas, B. H. (2018). Immersive Analytics. Springer. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-01388-2

[ 98] Martino, J. P. (2003). A review of selected recent advances in technological forecasting. Technological Forecasting and Social Change, 70(8), 719–733. https://doi.org/10.1016/s0040-1625(02)00375-x DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/S0040-1625(02)00375-X

[ 99] Masoud, H., Mortazavi, M., & Torabi Farsani, N. (2019). A study on tourists’ tendency towards intangible cultural heritage as an attraction (case study: Isfahan, Iran). City, Culture and Society, 17(4), 54–60. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ccs.2018.11.001 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ccs.2018.11.001

[ 100] Melbourne. (2023). What’s On | THE LUME Melbourne. Www.thelumemelbourne.com. https://www.thelumemelbourne.com/whats-on

[ 101] Meta. (2021a, September 9). Introducing Ray-Ban Stories: First-Generation Smart Glasses. About Facebook. https://about.fb.com/news/2021/09/introducing-ray-ban-stories-smart-glasses/

[ 102] Meta. (2021b, October 28). Connect 2021: Our vision for the metaverse. Tech at Meta. https://tech.facebook.com/reality-labs/2021/10/connect-2021-our-vision-for-the-metaverse/

[ 103] Meta. (2021c, October 28). Introducing Meta: A Social Technology Company. Meta. https://about.fb.com/news/2021/10/facebook-company-is-now-meta/

[ 104] meta. (2023). Digital connection in the metaverse | Meta. Digital Connection in the Metaverse. https://about.meta.com/metaverse/?utm_source=about.facebook.com&utm_medium=redirect

[ 105] Miles, I. (1990). Fiction and forecasting. Futures, 22(1), 83–91. https://doi.org/10.1016/0016-3287(90)90099-4 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/0016-3287(90)90099-4

[ 106] Miles, I. (1993). Stranger than fiction. Futures, 25(3), 315–321. https://doi.org/10.1016/0016-3287(93)90139-k DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/0016-3287(93)90139-K

[ 107] Milgram, P. (2021). The idea of Extended Reality (XR). Journal of Immersive Technology, 10, (2), 56-67.

[ 108] Miller, R. (2018). Transforming the future. UNESCO Publishing.

[ 109] Miola, & Apollonia. (2008). Backcasting Approach for Sustainable Mobility. Institute for Environment and Sustainability (Joint Research Centre).

[ 110] Mordor Intelligence. (2023). Extended Reality (XR) Market | Growth, Trends, Forecasts (2020 - 2025). Www.mordorintelligence.com. https://www.mordorintelligence.com/industry-reports/extended-reality-xr-market

[ 111] Moreno, C., Allam, Z., Chabaud, D., Gall, C., & Pratlong, F. (2021). Introducing the “15-Minute City”: Sustainability, Resilience and Place Identity in Future Post-Pandemic Cities. Smart Cities, 4(1), 93–111. https://doi.org/10.3390/smartcities4010006 DOI: https://doi.org/10.3390/smartcities4010006

[ 112] Mozumder, M. A. I., Sheeraz, M. M., Athar, A., Aich, S., & Kim, H.-C. (2022, February 1). Overview: Technology Roadmap of the Future Trend of Metaverse based on IoT, Blockchain, AI Technique, and Medical Domain Metaverse Activity. IEEE Xplore. https://doi.org/10.23919/ICACT53585.2022.9728808 DOI: https://doi.org/10.23919/ICACT53585.2022.9728808

[ 113] Mystakidis, S. (2022). Metaverse. Encyclopedia, 2(1), 486–497. https://doi.org/10.3390/encyclopedia2010031 DOI: https://doi.org/10.3390/encyclopedia2010031

[ 114] Mabdar Mutalib Khalaf Hammadi. (2022). The Effect of Aerobic and Anaerobic Exercises in Some Functional Variables During Effort for Short- and Long-Distance Runners. Journal Healthcare Treatment Development(JHTD) ISSN : 2799-1148, 2(04), 1–7. https://doi.org/10.55529/jhtd24.1.7 DOI: https://doi.org/10.55529/jhtd.24.1.7

[ 115] Nye, D. E. (2007). Technology matters : questions to live with. Mit.

[ 116] Noor Aziah Abu Bakar, Norhaninah A.Gani, & Nurisyal Muhamad. (2022). Social Media Usage among Small Enterprises during Covid-19 Pandemic. Journal Healthcare Treatment Development(JHTD) ISSN : 2799-1148, 2(02), 1–8. https://doi.org/10.55529/jhtd22.1.8 DOI: https://doi.org/10.55529/jhtd.22.1.8

[ 117] Olowoyeye Odunayo James, Oluwadare Olusegun Emmanuel, Gabriel Ayodeji Saanumi, Owolabi Oluwafemi Akinkunmi, & Abideen A. Adekanmi. (2022). Senna Alata Leaf and Stem: Phytochemical Screening, Nutritional Content, and Antimicrobial Activities. Journal of Environmental Impact and Management Policy(JEIMP) ISSN:2799-113X, 2(06), 1–11. https://doi.org/10.55529/jeimp.26.1.11 DOI: https://doi.org/10.55529/jeimp.26.1.11

[ 118] Obed Majeed Ali, & Ahmed Nawfal Mustafa. (2022). The Impact of Climate on the Efficiency and Performance of the Qayyarah Gas Station. Journal of Environmental Impact and Management Policy(JEIMP) ISSN:2799-113X, 2(06), 12–26. https://doi.org/10.55529/jeimp.26.12.26 DOI: https://doi.org/10.55529/jeimp.26.12.26

[ 119] Olipas, C. N. P. ., Viloria, J. P. ., Mateo, S. M. ., Maria, S. A. P. S. ., Bisnar, E. A. ., & Vallecera, M. L. M. . (2022). MediCord: A Web-Based Health Record Management System. Journal Healthcare Treatment Development(JHTD) ISSN : 2799-1148, 2(05), 35–45. https://doi.org/10.55529/jhtd25.35.45 DOI: https://doi.org/10.55529/jhtd25.35.45

[ 120] Paolo Inghilleri, Riva, G., & Riva, E. (2015). Enabling Positive Change: Flow and Complexity in Daily Experience. Warsaw, Poland De Gruyter Open. DOI: https://doi.org/10.2478/9783110410242

[ 121] Parsons, R., Tassinary, L. G., Ulrich, R. S., Hebl, M. R., & Grossman-Alexander, M. (1998). THE VIEW FROM THE ROAD: IMPLICATIONS FOR STRESS RECOVERY AND IMMUNIZATION. Journal of Environmental Psychology, 18(2), 113–140. https://doi.org/10.1006/jevp.1998.0086 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1006/jevp.1998.0086

[ 122] Pazhuhan, M., Shahraki, S. Z., Kaveerad, N., Cividino, S., Clemente, M., & Salvati, L. (2020). Factors Underlying Life Quality in Urban Contexts: Evidence from an Industrial City (Arak, Iran). Sustainability, 12(6), 2274. https://doi.org/10.3390/su12062274 DOI: https://doi.org/10.3390/su12062274

[ 123] Pedro, M., & Laura Alcaide Muñoz. (2019). E-Participation in Smart Cities: Technologies and Models of Governance for Citizen Engagement. In Public administration and information technology. Springer International Publishing. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-89474-4 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-89474-4

[ 124] Petronela, T. (2016). The Importance of the Intangible Cultural Heritage in the Economy. Procedia Economics and Finance, 39(5), 731–736. https://doi.org/10.1016/s2212-5671(16)30271-4 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/S2212-5671(16)30271-4

[ 125] Pickavet, H. (2021, October 28). “Project Cambria” is a high-end VR headset designed for Facebook’s metaverse. TechCrunch. https://techcrunch.com/2021/10/28/project-cambria-is-a-high-end-vr-headset-designed-for-facebooks-metaverse/

[ 126] Popper, & Rafael. (2009). Mapping Foresight. Directorate-General for Research and Innovation (European Commission).

[ 127] PRATHAP , M., & GILL, P. (2021, October). The “metaverse” may change the way you earn money, shop or even chill with friends in the future. Business Insider. https://www.businessinsider.in/investment/news/the-metaverse-may-change-the-way-you-earn-money-shop-or-even-chill-with-friends-in-the-future/slidelist/86677906.cms

[ 128] Prof.Satish Kumar Kalhotra, Pandey, K., Dr. Preety Verma, & Dr.Vineet Dahiya. (2023). Smart Technologies for Sustainable Development. Booksclinic Publishing.

[ 129] Queenny C. Fijo, Janie Mae T. Lorejo, Maryjane C. Nogalo, Rica Faye C. Plaza, & Medielyn M. Odtojan. (2022). Exposure Assessment of the Traffic Aides and Street Sweepers of Taganito Mining Corporation (TMC) to Noise Pollution. Journal of Environmental Impact and Management Policy(JEIMP) ISSN:2799-113X, 2(03), 29–36. https://doi.org/10.55529/jeimp.23.29.36 DOI: https://doi.org/10.55529/jeimp.23.29.36

[ 130] Radoff, J. (2021a, October 11). Jobs in the Metaverse. Building the Metaverse. https://medium.com/building-the-metaverse/jobs-in-the-metaverse-9395db90086

[ 131] Radoff, J. (2021b, November 13). Clash of the Metaverse Titans: Microsoft, Meta and Apple. Building the Metaverse. https://medium.com/building-the-metaverse/clash-of-the-metaverse-titans-microsoft-meta-and-apple-ce505b010376

[ 132] Reality Market, E. (2023, April). Extended Reality Market Size & Share | Industry Report, 2021-2026 | MarketsandMarketsTM. Www.marketsandmarkets.com. https://www.marketsandmarkets.com/Market-Reports/extended-reality-market-147143592.html

[ 133] Richardson, M., McEwan, K., Maratos, F., & Sheffield, D. (2016). Joy and Calm: How an Evolutionary Functional Model of Affect Regulation Informs Positive Emotions in Nature. Evolutionary Psychological Science, 2(4), 308–320. https://doi.org/10.1007/s40806-016-0065-5 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s40806-016-0065-5

[ 134] Rosenberg, L. (2022). Regulation of the Metaverse: A Roadmap. 2022 the 6th International Conference on Virtual and Augmented Reality Simulations. https://doi.org/10.1145/3546607.3546611 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1145/3546607.3546611

[ 135] Rushkoff, D. (2002). Renaissance Now! Media Ecology and the New Global Narrative. Explorations in Media Ecology, 1(1), 41–57. https://doi.org/10.1386/eme.1.1.41_1 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1386/eme.1.1.41_1

[ 136] Sanoev, Z. I. ., Khamroev, T. T. ., Abdinazarov, I. T. ., Rashidov, S. Z. ugli ., & Rakhimboev, S. D. ugli . (2021). Evaluation of Anticonvulsant Activity of Allapinine and N-Deacetylappaconitine in Experimental Animals. Journal Healthcare Treatment Development(JHTD) ISSN : 2799-1148, 1(02), 12–19. https://doi.org/10.55529/jhtd.12.12.19 DOI: https://doi.org/10.55529/jhtd.12.12.19

[ 137] Solomon Bessie George, Ekanemesang Amaifiok Sunday, Aniefiok Itohowo Sam, & Idara Ephraim Patrick. (2022). Indoor Thermal Comfort for Commercial Buildings in Nigeria Urban Environment. Journal of Environmental Impact and Management Policy(JEIMP) ISSN:2799-113X, 2(05), 1–13. https://doi.org/10.55529/jls.25.1.13 DOI: https://doi.org/10.55529/jls.25.1.13

[ 138] Sengar, A. ., Singh, A. P. ., Khare, A. ., Lal, A. B. ., & Singh, A. . (2022). Effect of Fat Replacers on the Multigrain Biscuits. Journal Healthcare Treatment Development(JHTD) ISSN : 2799-1148, 2(03), 19–30. https://doi.org/10.55529/jhtd23.19.30 DOI: https://doi.org/10.55529/jhtd23.19.30

[ 139] Saadu Umar Wali, Kabiru Jega Umar, & Isa Garba Abor. (2021). Modelling Flow and Fate of Contaminants in Groundwater Using a Version of the Five Steady- State Pollutant Transport Models. Journal of Electronics,Computer Networking and Applied Mathematics(JECNAM) ISSN : 2799-1156, 1(01), 1–30. https://doi.org/10.55529/jecnam.11.1.30 DOI: https://doi.org/10.55529/jecnam.11.1.30

[ 140] Sahraoui Dhelim, Tahar Kechadi, Chen, L., Aung, N., Ning, H., & Atzori, L. (2022). Edge-enabled Metaverse: The Convergence of Metaverse and Mobile Edge Computing. Distributed, Parallel, and Cluster Computing. https://doi.org/10.48550/arxiv.2205.02764 DOI: https://doi.org/10.36227/techrxiv.19606954

[ 141] Salerno, R. (2014). City ideologies in techno-urban imaginaries. Urban, 0(08-09), 185–192. http://polired.upm.es/index.php/urban/article/view/3274/3351

[ 142] Samsung research. (n.d.). The Next Hyper Connected Experience for All. Issued by Samsung Research. https://cdn.codeground.org/nsr/downloads/researchareas/6G%20Vision.pdf

[ 143] Schroepfer, M., & Peterson, R. (2020). Sustainability Report 2020. https://sustainability.fb.com/wp-content/uploads/2021/06/2020_FB_Sustainability-Report-3.pdf

[ 144] Sekalala, S.; Dagron, S.; Forman, L.; Meier, B.M. Analyzing the Human Rights Impact of Increased Digital Public Health Surveillance during the COVID-19 Crisis. Health Hum. Rights 2020, 22, 7–20.

[ 145] Sensiba, J. (2021, October 29). The Metaverse Could Protect The Environment & Save Lives (But Only If It Succeeds): Part 3. CleanTechnica. https://cleantechnica.com/2021/10/29/the-metaverse-could-protect-the-environment-save-lives-but-only-if-it-succeeds-part-3/

[ 146] Sharifi, A., Khavarian-Garmsir, A. R., & Kummitha, R. K. R. (2021). Contributions of Smart City Solutions and Technologies to Resilience against the COVID-19 Pandemic: A Literature Review. Sustainability, 13(14), 8018. https://doi.org/10.3390/su13148018 DOI: https://doi.org/10.3390/su13148018

[ 147] Shaw, F. (2021, November 2). Microsoft Cloud at Ignite 2021: Metaverse, AI and hyperconnectivity in a hybrid world. The Official Microsoft Blog. https://blogs.microsoft.com/blog/2021/11/02/microsoft-cloud-at-ignite-2021-metaverse-ai-and-hyperconnectivity-in-a-hybrid-world/

[ 148] Squires, C. (2021, November 9). Seoul will be the first city government to join the metaverse. Quartz. https://qz.com/2086353/seoul-is-developing-a-metaverse-government-platform

[ 149] Stephenson, N. (2003). Snow Crash. Spectra.

[ 150] Sudan, R. (2021, July 28). How should governments prepare for the metaverse? Digital Diplomacy. https://medium.com/digital-diplomacy/how-should-governments-prepare-for-the-metaverse-90fd03387a2a

[ 151] Taylor, S., & Soneji, S. (2022). Bioinformatics and the Metaverse: Are We Ready? Frontiers in Bioinformatics, 2. https://doi.org/10.3389/fbinf.2022.863676 DOI: https://doi.org/10.3389/fbinf.2022.863676

[ 152] Tennessen, C. M., & Cimprich, B. (1995). Views to nature: Effects on attention. Journal of Environmental Psychology, 15(1), 77–85. https://doi.org/10.1016/0272-4944(95)90016-0 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/0272-4944(95)90016-0

[ 153] The World Bank. (2020, June 8). The Global Economic Outlook During the COVID-19 Pandemic: A Changed World. The World Bank. https://www.worldbank.org/en/news/feature/2020/06/08/the-global-economic-outlook-during-the-covid-19-pandemic-a-changed-world

[ 154] Theo. (2021, August 5). Digital Twins, IOT and the Metaverse. Medium. https://medium.com/@theo/digital-twins-iot-and-the-metaverse-b4efbfc01112

[ 155] Thrift, N., & Kitchin, R. (2009). International encyclopedia of human geography (pp. 622–627). Elsevier.

[ 156] Temitope, C. A. ., Adekanmi, A. A. ., & Adekanmbi, U. . (2022). Anemia Awareness, Causes, and Prevention among Pregnant Women at Asogbon Phc, Bariga, Lagos State, Nigeria. Journal Healthcare Treatment Development(JHTD) ISSN : 2799-1148, 2(05), 17–34. https://doi.org/10.55529/jhtd25.17.34 DOI: https://doi.org/10.55529/jhtd25.17.34

[ 157] UN-Habitat. (2023). Governance | UN-Habitat. Unhabitat.org. https://unhabitat.org/governance

[ 158] UNFCCC. (2022). Microsoft: Carbon Negative Goal | Global. Unfccc.int. https://unfccc.int/climate-action/un-global-climate-action-awards/climate-neutral-now/microsoft-carbon-negative-goal#:~

[ 159] unhabitat. (2021). Cities and climate change | UN-Habitat. Unhabitat.org. https://unhabitat.org/cities-and-climate-change

[ 160] United Nations. (2022). Goal 11 | Department of Economic and Social Affairs. United Nations; United Nations. https://sdgs.un.org/goals/goal11

[ 161] VR, O. (2021, October). Introducing Presence Platform: Unleashing Mixed Reality and Natural Interaction for Oculus Developers. Oculus VR. https://developer.oculus.com/blog/introducing-presence-platform-unleashing-mixed-reality-and-natural-interaction-for-oculus-developers/

[ 162] Vagif Shadlinski, & Anar Abdullayev. (2021). Anatomical Peculiarities Of Mandibular Foramen. Journal Healthcare Treatment Development(JHTD) ISSN : 2799-1148, 1(01), 1–5. https://doi.org/10.55529/jhtd11.1.5 DOI: https://doi.org/10.55529/jhtd.11.1.5

[ 163] Warren, T. (2021, November 2). Microsoft Teams enters the metaverse race with 3D avatars and immersive meetings. The Verge. https://www.theverge.com/2021/11/2/22758974/microsoft-teams-metaverse-mesh-3d-avatars-meetings-features#:~

[ 164] Wells , C., & Egkolfopoulou, M. (2021, October). Bloomberg - Are you a robot? Www.bloomberg.com. https://www.bloomberg.com/news/features/2021-10-30/what-is-the-metaverse-where-crypto-nft-capitalism-collide-in-games-like-axie

[ 165] Wiggins, B. (2020, March 24). Cars Are a Major Source of Greenhouse Gas Emissions — Some Cities Are Finally Taking Action. Global Citizen. https://www.globalcitizen.org/en/content/cities-car-bans-greenhouse-gas-emissions/

[ 166] Wilkins, G., & Stiff, A. (2019). Hem Realities: Augmenting Urbanism Through Tacit and Immersive Feedback. Architecture and Culture, 1–17. https://doi.org/10.1080/20507828.2019.1673545 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/20507828.2019.1673545

[ 167] World Economic . (2021, September). What is the metaverse and why should we care? World Economic Forum. https://www.weforum.org/agenda/2021/10/what-is-the-metaverse-why-care/

[ 168] xrtoday. (2021, December 2). Doing Business in the Metaverse: Opportunity or Threat? XR Today. https://www.xrtoday.com/virtual-reality/doing-business-in-the-metaverse-opportunity-or-threat/

[ 169] X. Lenin Xaviour, & S. Robinson Chellathurai. (2021). The Connected Geodetic Global Domination Number of a Graph. Journal of Electronics,Computer Networking and Applied Mathematics(JECNAM) ISSN : 2799-1156, 1(01), 31–40. https://doi.org/10.55529/jecnam11.31.40 DOI: https://doi.org/10.55529/jecnam.11.31.40

[ 170] Yu. R. Mirzaev, T. T. Khamroev, E. M. Ruzimov, B. N. Khandamov, & Sh. M. Adizov. (2022). Evaluation of the Effect on the Nervous System of Substances with an Alkaloid Structure Having Antitumor Activity. Journal Healthcare Treatment Development(JHTD) ISSN : 2799-1148, 2(06), 6–10. https://doi.org/10.55529/jhtd.26.6.10 DOI: https://doi.org/10.55529/jhtd.26.6.10

Downloads

Published

06-09-2023

How to Cite

1.
Qadir AM-A, Fatah AO. Platformization and the Metaverse: Opportunities and Challenges for Urban Sustainability and Economic Development. EAI Endorsed Trans Energy Web [Internet]. 2023 Sep. 6 [cited 2024 Jun. 18];10. Available from: https://publications.eai.eu/index.php/ew/article/view/3842