Design and analysis of battery management system in electric vehicle




Electric vehicle, Battery Management System, one RC network, Two RC networks, Battery monitoring


The usage of electric vehicles is gaining momentum in recent time’s thus providing support to the growth in sales of electric vehicles. The Battery management system is the most important aspect to ensure the smooth functioning of an electric vehicle. This research highlights some key statements on the background of electric vehicles. The increase in the overall growing importance of electric vehicles has also been explained in this work. Battery management system has an importance in the functioning of electric vehicles, thus presenting the key highlights of this article. The finding presents the importance of batteries and their type used in EVs. The simulation results of the Lithium battery cell – 1 RC, 2 RC equivalent circuit parameters such as charging current, terminal voltage, state of charge, and battery current have been simulated and analysed in Matlab. The future scope of BMS and its development has been discussed.


Download data is not yet available.


Tortorella G.L., Fogliatto F.S., Cauchick-Miguel P.A., Kurnia, S. and Jurburg, D. Integration of industry 4.0 technologies into total productive maintenance practices. Int.J.Prod.Econ. 2021; 240 (2) :108-224. DOI:

Baek S.Y., Kim, Y.S., Kim, W.S., Baek S.M. and Kim, Y.J. Development and verification of a simulation model for a 120-kW class electric AWD (all-wheel-drive) tractor during driving operation. Energies. 2020; 13: 24 -30. DOI:

Berecibar M., Garmendia M., Gandiaga I., Crego J. and Villarreal I. State of health estimation algorithm of LiFePO4 battery packs based on differential voltage curves for battery management system application. Energies. 2016; 103: 784-796. DOI:

Cipollone R., Di Battista D., Marchionni M. and Villante C. Model-based design and optimization of a fuel cell electric vehicle. Energy Procedia. 2014; 45: 71-80. DOI:

Coronado C.R., de CarvalhoJr J.A., Yoshioka J.T. and Silveira J.L. Determination of ecological efficiency in internal combustion engines, The use of biodiesel. Appl.Therm.Eng. 2009; 29: 1887-1892. DOI:

Costa C.M., Barbosa J.C., Castro H., Gonçalves R. and Lanceros-Méndez, S. Electric vehicles To what extent are environmentally friendly and cost-effective–Comparative work by European countries. Renew.Sust.Energy.Rev. 2021; 151 :111-548. DOI:

Del Pero F., Delogu M. and Pierini M. Life Cycle Assessment in the automotive sector A comparative casework of Internal Combustion Engine (ICE) and electric car. Procedia Struct. Integr. 2018; 12: 521-537. DOI:

Landsberg P T, Markvart T. Ideal Efficiencies in Practical Handbook of Photovoltaics. Sustain. Energy Technol. Assess. 2022; 27: 123-134. DOI:

Kazem H, A, Khatib A, Sopian K. Sizing of a standalone photovoltaic/battery system at minimum cost for remote housing electrification in Solar. Energies. 2015; 61: 108–115. DOI:

Gabbar H.A., Othman A.M. and Abdussami M.R. Review of battery management systems (BMS) development and industrial standards. Technologies. 2021; 9: 28-35. DOI:

Gao J., Chen H., Li, Y., Chen J., Zhang Y., Dave K. and Huang Y. Fuel consumption and exhaust emissions of diesel vehicles in worldwide harmonized light vehicles test cycles and their sensitivities to eco-driving factors. Energy convers. Manag. 2019; 196: 605-613. DOI:

Jiang C., Wang S., Wu B., Fernandez C., Xiong X. and Coffie-Ken, J. A state-of-charge estimation method of the power lithium-ion battery in complex conditions based on adaptive square root extended Kalman filter. Energy. 2021; 219: 119-603. DOI:

Khayamy M., Nasiri, A. and Okoye O. Development of an equivalent circuit for batteries based on a distributed impedance network. IEEE Trans. Veh. Technol. 2020; 69: 6119-6128. DOI:

Kumar D., Nema, R.K. and Gupta S. A comparative review on power conversion topologies and energy storage systems for electric vehicles. Int. J. Energy Res. 2020; 44: 7863-7885. DOI:

Kumar M.S. and Revankar S.T. Development scheme and key technology of an electric vehicle, An overview. Renew.Sust.Energy.Rev. 2017; 70: 1266-1285. DOI:

Lévay P.Z., Drossinos, Y. and Thiel C. The effect of fiscal incentives on market penetration of electric vehicles, A pairwise comparison of total cost of ownership. Energy Policy. 2017; 105: 524-533. DOI:

Mekhilef S., Saidur, R. and Safari, A. Comparative work of different fuel cell technologies. Renew. Sust. Energ. Rev. 2012; 16: 981-989. DOI:

Qin D., Li J., Wang T. and Zhang D. Modeling and simulating a battery for an electric vehicle based on Modelica. Automot. Innov. 2019; 2: 169-177. DOI:

Ramkumar M.S., Reddy C., Ramakrishnan, A., Raja K., Pushpa S., Jose, S. and Jayakumar M. Review on Li-Ion Battery with Battery Management System in Electrical Vehicle. Adv. Mater. Sci. Eng. 2022; 202: 1-8. DOI:

Riba J.R., López-Torres C., Romeral L. and Garcia A. Rare-earth-free propulsion motors for electric vehicles A technology review. Renew.Sust.Energy.Rev. 2016; 57: 367-379. DOI:

Ruan H., Wei Z., Shang, W., Wang X. and He H. Artificial Intelligence-based health diagnostic of Lithium-ion battery leveraging transient stage of constant current and constant voltage charging. Appl. Energy. 2023; 336: 120-751. DOI:

Saldaña G., San Martín J.I., Zamora I., Asensio F.J. and Oñederra O. Analysis of the current electric battery models for electric vehicle simulation. Energies. 2019; 12: 27-50. DOI:

Rahmawatie B., Fahma F., Nizam M., Purwanto A., Louhenapessy B.B. and Kadir E.A. A technical review of BMS performance standard for electric vehicle applications in Indonesia.Telkomnika(Telecommunication Computing Electronics and Control). 2021; 16: 54-59.

Albatayneh A., Assaf, M.N., Alterman D. and Jaradat M. Comparison of the overall energy efficiency for internal combustion engine vehicles and electric vehicles. Environmental and Climate Technologies. 2020; 24: 669-680. DOI:

Tran M.K., Akinsanya M., Panchal S., Fraser R. and Fowler M. Design of a hybrid electric vehicle powertrain for performance optimization considering various powertrain components and configurations. Vehicles. 2020; 3: 20-32. DOI:

Zhang H. Deng C., Zong Y., Zuo Q., Guo H., Song S. and Jiang L. Effect of Sample Interval on the Parameter Identification Results of RC Equivalent Circuit Models of Li-ion Battery. An Investigation Based on HPPC Test Data. Batteries. 2022; 9: 1-10. DOI:




How to Cite

Parameswari M, Usha S. Design and analysis of battery management system in electric vehicle. EAI Endorsed Trans Energy Web [Internet]. 2024 Feb. 1 [cited 2024 Feb. 22];11. Available from: