A Framework for Data Provenance Assurance in Cloud Environment using Ethereum Blockchain
Data Provenance Assurance in Cloud using Blockchain
Keywords:Data provenance, Blockchain, Ethereum, POW, POA, OpenStack, Swift API
Ensuring secure data provenance is crucial for maintaining accountability and confidentiality in cloud environments. Cloud data provenance involves recording the history of creation and operations performed on cloud data objects. However, establishing trust between cloud customers and service providers remains a challenge, highlighting the need for assured data provenance models in cloud storage. Blockchain technology has emerged as a solution for designing data provenance assurance mechanisms. It provides a decentralized and distributed ledger to record the provenance of digital assets. In this context, we present a blockchain-based framework for ensuring data provenance in cloud storage. Initially, we develop a cloud storage application using OpenStack swift storage. This application caters to the storage needs of university students and faculty while providing data provenance capabilities. Subsequently, we design a data provenance assurance framework for confidential files of users using the Ethereum blockchain. To evaluate the scalability and performance of the proposed framework, we analyze various factors such as transaction throughput, latency, network size, and load on the blockchain network. The performance of the system is compared under two consensus algorithms: Proof of Work and Proof of Authority. By conducting this analysis, we aim to assess the effectiveness and efficiency of the blockchain-based solution in ensuring data provenance in cloud storage environments.
Butt,UmerAhmed,RashidAmin,MuhammadMehmood, Hamza Aldabbas, Mafawez T. Alharbi,and Nasser Albaqami. "Cloud security threats andsolutions: A survey." Wireless Personal Communications128, no. 1 (2023): 387-413.
Jangjou, Mehrdad, and Mohammad Karim Sohrabi."A comprehensive survey on security challenges indifferent network layers in cloud computing." Archivesof Computational Methods in Engineering 29, no. 6(2022): 3587-3608.
Bofeng Pan, Natalia Stakhanova, and Suprio Ray. 2023."Data Provenance in Security and Privacy.", ACMComput. Surv. 55, 14s, Article 323 (December 2023), 35pages. https://doi.org/10.1145/3593294
Oludare Isaac Abiodun, Moatsum Alawida, Abio-dun Esther Omolara, Abdulatif Alabdulatif, "Dataprovenance for cloud forensic investigations, secu-rity, challenges, solutions and future perspectives: Asurvey", Journal of King Saud University - Com-puter and Information Sciences, Volume 34, Issue10, Part B, 2022, pp. 10217-10245, ISSN 1319-1578,https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jksuci.2022.10.018.
Gupta,Manish,andRajendraKumarDwivedi."Blockchain-Based Secure and Efficient Scheme forMedical Data." EAI Endorsed Transactions on ScalableInformation Systems 10, no. 5 (2023).
Tripathi, Abhinandan, and Jay Prakash. "BlockchainEnabled Interpolation Based Reversible Data HidingMechanism for Protecting Records." EAI EndorsedTransactions on Scalable Information Systems 10, no. 5(2023).
Gong, Jianhu, and Nima Jafari Navimipour. "An in-depthand systematic literature review on the blockchain-basedapproaches for cloud computing." Cluster Computing25, no. 1 (2022): 383-400.
Tosh, Deepak, Sachin Shetty, Xueping Liang, CharlesKamhoua, and Laurent L. Njilla. "Data provenance in thecloud: A blockchain-based approach." IEEE consumerelectronics magazine 8, no. 4 (2019): 38-44.
Abhishek, P., Y. Akash, and D. G. Narayan. "A ScalableData Provenance Mechanism for Cloud Environmentusing Ethereum Blockchain." In 2021 IEEE InternationalConference on Distributed Computing, VLSI, ElectricalCircuits and Robotics (DISCOVER), pp. 1-6. IEEE, 2021.
Uppalapati, Padma Jyothi, Bhogesh Karthik Gontla,Priyanka Gundu, S. Mahaboob Hussain, and KandulaNarasimharo. "A Machine Learning Approach to Iden-tifying Phishing Websites: A Comparative Study of Clas-sification Models and Ensemble Learning Techniques."EAI Endorsed Transactions on Scalable Information Sys-tems 10, no. 5 (2023).
Yin, Jiao, MingJian Tang, Jinli Cao, Mingshan You, HuaWang, and Mamoun Alazab. "Knowledge-Driven Cyber-security Intelligence: Software Vulnerability Coexploita-tion Behavior Discovery." IEEE transactions on industrialinformatics 19, no. 4 (2022): 5593-5601.
Ezhil Arasi, V., K. Indra Gandhi, and K. Kulothungan."Auditable attribute-based data access control usingblockchain in cloud storage." The Journal of Supercomputing 78, no. 8 (2022): 10772-10798.
You, Mingshan, Jiao Yin, Hua Wang, Jinli Cao, KateWang, Yuan Miao, and Elisa Bertino. "A knowledge graphempowered online learning framework for access controldecision-making." World Wide Web 26, no. 2 (2023):827-848.
Ge, Yong-Feng, Maria Orlowska, Jinli Cao, Hua Wang,and Yanchun Zhang. "MDDE: multitasking distributeddifferential evolution for privacy-preserving databasefragmentation." The VLDB Journal 31, no. 5 (2022): 957-975.
Wang, Hua, and Lili Sun. "Trust-involved accesscontrol in collaborative open social networks." In 2010fourth international conference on network and systemsecurity, pp. 239-246. IEEE, 2010.
Kudtharkar, Akshatha N., Neha S. Bidarkundi, P.Geethika, Laxmi Kamoji, D. G. Narayan, and Pooja Shet-tar. "Attribute Based Access Control for Cloud Resourcesusing Smart Contracts." In 2023 International Confer-ence on Networking and Communications (ICNWC), pp.1-5. IEEE, 2023.
Mughal, Aamir, and Alex Joseph. "Blockchain for cloudstorage security: a review." In 2020 4th InternationalConference on Intelligent Computing and ControlSystems (ICICCS), pp. 1163-1169. IEEE, 2020.
Hasan, Syed Saud, Nazatul Haque Sultan, and FerdousAhmed Barbhuiya. "Cloud data provenance using IPFSand blockchain technology." In Proceedings of theSeventh International Workshop on Security in CloudComputing, pp. 5-12. 2019.
Patil, Abhishekh, Amit Jha, Mohammed Moin Mulla, D.G. Narayan, and Shivaraj Kengond. "Data provenanceassurance for cloud storage using blockchain." In 2020International Conference on Advances in Computing,Communication and Materials (ICACCM), pp. 443-448.IEEE, 2020.
Simmhan, Yogesh L., Beth Plale, and Dennis Gannon. "Asurvey of data provenance in e-science." ACM SigmodRecord 34, no. 3 (2005): 31-36.
Suen, Chun Hui, Ryan KL Ko, Yu Shyang Tan, PeterJagadpramana, and Bu Sung Lee. "S2logger: End-to-enddata tracking mechanism for cloud data provenance." In2013 12th IEEE International Conference on Trust, Secu-rity and Privacy in Computing and Communications, pp.594-602. IEEE, 2013.
Aditya, C., M. Akash, P. Akash, M. Amitkumar, K.Nagarathna, D. Suraj, D. G. Narayan, and S. M. Meena."Claims-Based VM Authorization on OpenStack PrivateCloud using Blockchain." Procedia Computer Science171 (2020): 2205-2214.
Ko, Ryan KL, and Mark A. Will. "Progger: An efficient,tamper-evident kernel-space logger for cloud dataprovenance tracking." In 2014 IEEE 7th InternationalConference on Cloud Computing, pp. 881-889. IEEE,2014.
Sun, Lian-Shan, Xue Bai, Chao Zhang, Yang Li, Yong-Bin Zhang, and Wen-Qiang Guo. "BSTProv: Blockchain-Based Secure and Trustworthy Data Provenance Shar-ing." Electronics 11, no. 9 (2022): 1489.
Zyskind, Guy, Oz Nathan, and Alex Pentland. "Enigma:Decentralized computation platform with guaranteedprivacy." arXiv preprint arXiv:1506.03471 (2015).
Li, Haochen, Keke Gai, Zhengkang Fang, LiehuangZhu, Lei Xu, and Peng Jiang. "Blockchain-enableddata provenance in cloud datacenter reengineering." InProceedings of the 2019 ACM International Symposiumon Blockchain and Secure Critical Infrastructure, pp. 47-55. 2019.
Worley, Carl, Lu Yu, Richard Brooks, Jon Oakley,Anthony Skjellum, Amani Altarawneh, Sai Medury,and Ujan Mukhopadhyay. "Scrybe: A second-generationblockchain technology with lightweight mining forsecure provenance and related applications." BlockchainCybersecurity, Trust and Privacy (2020): 51-67.
Darwish, Marwan Adnan, Eiad Yafi, Mohammed A. AlGhamdi, and Abdullah Almasri. "Decentralizing privacyimplementation at cloud storage using blockchain-basedhybrid algorithm." Arabian Journal for Science andEngineering 45 (2020): 3369-3378.
Gouru, Navya, and NagaLakshmi Vadlamani. "DistProv-data provenance in distributed cloud for secure transferof digital assets with Ethereum Blockchain usingZKP." In Cyber Warfare and Terrorism: Concepts,Methodologies, Tools, and Applications, pp. 866-890.IGI Global, 2020.
Wang, Feiyu, Jian-Tao Zhou, and Xu Guo. "BMDP:Blockchain-Based Multi-Cloud Storage Data Prove-nance." In 2023 26th International Conference on Com-puter Supported Cooperative Work in Design (CSCWD),pp. 703-708. IEEE, 2023.
Jyoti, Amrita, and R. K. Chauhan. "A blockchain andsmart contract-based data provenance collection andstoring in cloud environment." Wireless Networks 28,no. 4 (2022): 1541-1562.
Rosado, Tiago, and Jorge Bernardino. "An overviewof openstack architecture." In Proceedings of the18th International Database Engineering ApplicationsSymposium, pp. 366-367. 2014.
Wood, Gavin. "Ethereum: A secure decentralised gen-eralised transaction ledger." Ethereum project yellowpaper 151, no. 2014 (2014): 1-32.
How to Cite
Copyright (c) 2023 Narayan G, Pavitra Haveri, Rashmi B, Yashwardhan Deewan
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.
This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the CC BY-NC-SA 4.0, which permits copying, redistributing, remixing, transformation, and building upon the material in any medium so long as the original work is properly cited.